An electric arc is maintained between the tip of a coated welding electrode and the workpiece. If the consumable metal droplets from the electrode through the arc end up in the weld pool, they will be protected against the ambient atmosphere by gases released from the coating of the electrode. The liquid slag covers the surface of the weld pool, and thus protects the weld metal during solidification against the influence of the surrounding air.
The slag must be removed after each sealing layer. There are hundreds of different types of welding electrodes often containing alloys to increase durability., The strength or toughness of the weld This process is most commonly used for ferrous metals in construction and shipbuilding and general metal. Despite the relative slowness of the process, by the change of electrodes and the removal of the slag, it is still one of the most flexible welding processes, especially where the accessibility of the weld is limited.